The hearts of addiction medicine doctors nationwide are aflutter at rumors that the limit on office-based buprenorphine patients may be raised or lifted. As it is now, the DATA 2000 law says each doctor who prescribes buprenorphine from an office setting for the treatment of opioid addiction can have no more than one hundred patients at any one time.
DATA 2000 was a big deal. Until it passed, it was illegal for any doctor to prescribe any opioid to treat opioid addiction, unless they worked at a specially licensed opioid treatment program. In other words, doctors in an office setting had to refer opioid-addicted patients to opioid treatment centers for medication-assisted treatment. And the only medication available was methadone.
Then DATA 2000 allowed Schedule 3 opioids to be prescribed from physicians’ offices for the purpose of treating opioid addiction, as long as these medications were FDA-approved for this purpose. Thus far, buprenorphine is the only medication that meets the DATA 2000 requirements.
But the law had other limitations. For example, each physician had to get a special DEA number to prescribe buprenorphine. And as above, no physician could have any more than one hundred patients on buprenorphine at any one time.
My office gets multiple calls each week from people seeking treatment for opioid addiction in an office setting. These callers say they’ve already been to the websites that list doctors. (http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov and http://suboxone.com . They’ve made multiple calls and discovered these doctors aren’t taking new patients because they’re already at their one hundred patient limit. This is happening all over the country; patients want treatment but can’t get it. For many such people, opioid treatment centers are geographically impractical, so that’s not an option either.
Since addiction is a devastating and potentially fatal disease, government officials feel pressure to do something to help our nation’s opioid addiction problem. Lifting the one- hundred patient limit has been suggested as one option to improve the situation. This would seem to be the best, easiest, and quickest way to get more people into treatment. At least, most Addiction Medicine doctors like me think it makes sense.
Not everyone agrees.
Opposition has come from some unexpected sources. I went to an opioid addiction treatment conference in a neighboring state lately and heard the president of AATOD (American Association for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence), Mark Parrino, MPA, speak against lifting the limit.
First let me say I admire Mr. Parrino immensely. He has been and continues to be a huge advocate for this field. He’s done more good in the field of opioid addiction treatment than most people I can think of, and has been doing this good work long before I ever even entered the field.
But that doesn’t mean I agree with him on everything.
When he spoke at the conference, he said he was opposed to expanded buprenorphine treatment in the office-based setting because patients don’t get the counseling that they need, so it really isn’t medication-assisted treatment, it’s just medication assistance. He says opioid treatment programs provide on-site counseling, drug testing, and other services that can help patients, and that most office-based programs don’t offer such comprehensive services. He also said diversion of buprenorphine from office-based practices is a huge problem, and that much of the black market use is actually abuse of the medication. He raised the uncomfortable issue of price gouging by some unscrupulous buprenorphine doctors who charge large fees and deliver little care.
You can read a statement on the AATOD website that fully describes their opposition – or at least call for caution – regarding raising the one hundred patient office based treatment limit:
I don’t completely disagree with the points Mr. Parrino made at the conference, but I do think the same arguments can be made against OTPs if one were inclined to do so.
What about opioid treatment programs that pay lip service to the counseling needs of the patients? What about OTPs that hire people to be counselors with little or no experience in the counseling field? Just as Mr. Parrino can point to the worst examples of office-based buprenorphine treatment, I can point to OTPs who aren’t doing a great job. How can an OTP counselor provide Motivational Interviewing as a therapeutic technique if that counselor has never even heard of MI? Yet I’ve seen these problems at opioid treatment programs.
Don’t paint all office-based practices with the same brush. Many of us want to provide good treatment with adequate counseling. For example, my office has a therapist who is a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Master’s in Addiction Counseling. He does a great job, and as an added bonus has great legs. (He’s my fiancé, before you assume I’m sexually harassing him at the workplace).
Alternatively, if the patient prefers to do only 12-step meetings, I’m OK with that, so long as they provide me with a list of meetings they’ve attended each month. Or if they’re already working with a therapist, it’s OK with me if they want to continue, as long as they agree to allow me to speak with their therapist about issues directly relating to the treatment of their addiction.
Diversion of buprenorphine to the black market is a big problem. Not all office-based buprenorphine doctors are as careful as we should be. We will never be able to get rid of all diversion of any controlled substance that we prescribe, but all buprenorphine doctors should be doing drug screens and have diversion controls in place to limit the problem.
Not as much methadone is diverted, but only because of the very strict regulations on methadone take- home doses at the OTP. Many patients – and OTP personnel – feel present regulations on methadone take- home doses are overly strict and limit flexibility of treatment for patients who are doing well. Is the answer then to regulate take -home doses of buprenorphine as closely as methadone?
What about the predatory doctors who prescribe buprenorphine just for a quick buck, sensing they can charge exorbitant fees from desperate opioid addicts? I can’t say anything in their favor. They embarrass me. As with many things in life, the actions of a few give the rest of us a bad reputation. But I do think these doctors are in the minority.
And don’t believe everything you are told about office-based practices; I’m sometimes told by patients that I’m in it “for the money” though I charge the same for an office visit for a buprenorphine patient as I would for any other medical ailment. Some patients feel like their treatment should be free, but the U.S system of medical care is not usually free for any disease.
In short, though I recognize there’s some truth in many of Mr. Parrino’s statements, I still think most buprenorphine doctors try very hard to do things right so that they provide good care for opioid addicts who can’t or won’t go to an opioid treatment program. Expanding access by raising the one-hundred patient limit will allow more people to get addiction treatment.