Officially an Epidemic

 

It’s official. Prescription drug abuse in the U.S. is now called an epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In November, CDC officials released a new report of prescription drug addiction. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6043a4.htm?s_cid=mm6043a4_w

It’s really interesting reading.

The CDC points out that prescription opioid overdose deaths now outnumber heroin and cocaine overdose deaths combined and prescription opioids were involved in 74% of all prescription drug overdose deaths.

The breakdown of their data by state is particularly interesting. The states with the highest rates of opioid overdose deaths are, in descending order: New Mexico, with a rate of 27 deaths per 100,000 people, then West Virginia, Nevada, Utah, Alaska, Kentucky, Rhode Island, Florida, Oklahoma, and Ohio. Tennessee missed the top ten, but was still 13th highest in overdose deaths, with a rate of 14.8. North Carolina’s rate was 12.9 per 100,000 people, which put North Carolina 24th out of 50 for prescription overdose deaths. That’s too high, but much improved since 2005, when North Carolina was in the top five states for prescription opioid overdose deaths. The lowest opioid overdose death rate was seen in Nebraska, with 5.5 deaths per 100,000 people.

The CDC also analyzed information about the amount of opioids prescribed in each state. They measured kilograms of opioid pain relievers prescribed per 10,000 people in each state. The state with the highest rate had over three times the rate of the state with the lowest rate. It’s no surprise that Florida had the highest amount, at 12.6 kilograms per every 10,000. Illinois had the lowest amount, at 3.7 kilograms per 10,000 people.

The big surprise: Tennessee has the second highest amount of opioids prescribed, adjusted by population. (OK, they tied for second place with Oregon). Yep. Tennessee, the state that refuses to allow more opioid treatment centers to be built within its borders, has 11.8 kilograms of opioids prescribed per every 10,000 people.  But since I want to devote an entire blog entry to Tennessee’s backward outlook on addiction and its treatment, I’ll defer further comments about that state.

Sales of prescription opioid quadrupled from 1999 to 2010. According to the CDC, enough opioids were sold last year to provide a month of hydrocodone, dosed 5mg every four hours, for each adult in the U.S.

The CDC estimates that for every prescription overdose death, there are at least 130 more people who are addicted or abuse these medications, and 825 who are “nonmedical users” of opioids. (I’m still not sure how nonmedical users differ from abusers. To me, if it’s nonmedical, that’s abuse.) Not all of the 825 are addicted or will become addicted – but they are certainly at risk.

Just like what was found in other studies, people who abuse opioids are most likely to get them for free from a friend or relative. So if you are giving pain pills to your friends or family members, you are part of this large problem.

In 2008, 36,450 people died from prescription overdose deaths. That was nearly equal to the number of people who died in auto accidents, at 39,973. In fact, in seventeen states, the number of overdose deaths did exceed auto accident deaths.

The CDC authors conclude that the prescription opioid addiction isn’t getting any better, and in measurable ways, it’s worsened, with some states worse than others. The worst areas, not surprisingly, have higher rates of opioid prescribing that can’t be explained by differences in the population. To me, this means doctors in some states are overprescribing, or at least aren’t taking proper precautions when they do prescribe opioids.

In my next blog entry, I’ll explain how people and organizations in North Carolina have been working hard to deal with the prescription pain pill addiction problem. Based on information from the CDC, it appears my state has made some major progress, at least compared to one of our neighboring states.

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