Smoked Heroin Leads to Early Lung Disease

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Heroin can be injected, snorted, or smoked. Researchers in England, noting an apparent increase in lung disease in people who smoke heroin, did a study that was just released late last year.

Walker et al, from Liverpool, England, studied 73 heroin smokers who had developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms before age 40. Researchers did pulmonary testing on these subjects and found significant abnormalities on pulmonary function tests, high-resolution CT scans, and oxygen diffusion capacity. (This last test shows how easily oxygen crosses from the lungs to the blood stream.)

These findings, building on other preliminary similar studies, shows that smoking heroin is associated with very early onset of COPD/emphysema.

Other studies have shown an associating between asthma attacks and smoked drugs, both with heroin and crack cocaine, but this study showed specific types are areas of lung changes which presumably are irreversible, in these very young patients. With cigarette smoking alone, significant COPD is rare before age 40, but all of these patients were younger than 40. Still, cigarette smoking could contribute to the severity of COPD.

Experts discussed the mechanism of lung damage in these heroin smokers. They postulated that heroin smokers tend to take deep breaths and hold the smoke in as long as possible, causing increased pressure in the thorax, which could cause or contribute to the lung damage.

Heroin smokers often put heroin on foil, then apply a heat source beneath and inhale the smoke. This is sometimes called “chasing the dragon.” Perhaps there’s something in the foil that when heated and inhaled, can cause lung disease. If that’s the case, then people who smoke pain pills could also be at risk for COPD from this practice.

Some experts point out that heroin burns at a much higher temperature than tobacco, and wonder if the higher temperature of the smoke causes this type of early lung damage.
For now we don’t know precisely why heroin smokers get early and probably irreversible lung damage, but physicians should be alert to this as a potential cause of early COPD, particularly in patients under age 40.

And here’s another good reason to stop using and get into recovery…

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