Following are several short news updates I thought might interest readers:
In a blog I posted in 2013, I mentioned a new heroin vaccine being developed. Last fall, the researcher got a 1.6 million dollar grant to continue research studies on the vaccine.
Kim Janda, researcher at the Scripps Institute in California, created the vaccine. The idea behind the vaccine is that it tricks the body into making antibodies against a substance, in this case heroin. After the person has formed these antibodies, if heroin is used, antibodies bind to the drug and keep it from attaching to brain receptors. Since heroin can’t bind to the brain’s pleasure receptors, the person has no euphoric effect from heroin.
Every type of opioid needs a specific antibody to be created, so Dr. Janda plans to try to create a vaccine against oxycodone and hydrocodone, too.
Such vaccines could be another tool with which to fight opioid addiction, but would need to be combined with psychosocial counseling for maximum effectiveness. The vaccine prohibits the opioid from attaching to mu opioid receptors, but would not alleviate cravings for opioids. It would have no effect on withdrawal symptoms, either.
Thus far, the vaccine looks promising in rat studies. We have no human data, and researchers in Virginia Commonwealth University will be helping with primate studies. If these are as successful, human trials could then begin, meaning it would take years to come to market, if it is successful.
I wonder if the vaccine can be overridden. In other words, is it possible to inject so much heroin that all the antibodies are used? If so, could extra heroin still cross the blood-brain-barrier to cause euphoria? I don’t know. Stay tuned for more data.
Frontline: Chasing Heroin
Did everyone get a chance to watch the PBS Frontline segment about opioid addiction and its treatment? You can watch the entire show at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/chasing-heroin/
I missed this program when it originally aired on 2/23/16, but watched it last weekend, and I’m glad I did. It was very good.
The program started by giving the history of opioid addiction in our country, and the factors that lead to the over-prescribing of opioids starting in the late 1990’s. The program described the inappropriate marketing of OxyContin, the pain management movement, and mistakes about assumed rates of opioid addiction in patients prescribed opioids long-term.
The program showed how many people who were addicted to prescription opioids eventually switched to cheaper and more potent heroin. They described the usual progression from snorting or smoking heroin to injecting it.
Heroin addiction currently disproportionately affects the white middle class, unlike past decades, when heroin was seen as an inner-city, minority problem. Some of the people interviewed rightfully pointed out possible racism of our current focus on the problem of opioid addiction. Since the white middle class got addicted, people are talking about how to fix this epidemic. When minorities were affected, not so much attention was lavished upon the affected population.
The show interviewed key people in this nation who know much about addiction and its treatment. Barry Meier, who wrote the book “Pain Killer” back when it was not considered proper to criticize Purdue Pharma, was interviewed, as was Sam Quinones, who wrote, “Dreamland.” (I reviewed this book recently on my blog, saying it did a great job of explaining how heroin has quietly swept across the U.S.)
Dr. Thomas McLellan, former deputy director of the ONDCP (Office of National Drug Control Policy) spoke about addiction, and Nora Volkow, from NIDA, was interviewed about the disease aspect of addiction. She explained how addicting drugs damage the brain, making it harder to stop using drugs once they’ve been started.
Robert DuPont, our first Drug Czar, was interviewed and he gave some historical perspective.
Facts from experts are helpful, but real stories from affected people have more emotional power. The program followed several opioid-addicted people as they sought help. Their paths through addiction and attempts at treatment illustrate many of the problems of our present treatment system, or rather lack of system.
I was mostly pleased with how the program handled medication-assisted treatment with methadone and buprenorphine (Suboxone/Subutex, etc.). The program showed the story of a community in Washington State, hard hit with heroin addiction, which voted not to allow a methadone clinic to become established, a classic example of the NIMBY attitude. One of the people who objected to the methadone clinic then had a son who became addicted, and the program showed his gradual change of mind about addition treatment programs.
The program said what we in the field know too well: MAT is an evidence-based and proven form of treatment, yet it remains “controversial” to many people working in addiction treatment.
I felt that issue could have been pushed farther and examined in more depth, but of course that’s my bias.
Toward the end of the show, an interviewer asks a doctor something to the effect of, “…so you can prescribe OxyContin to as many patients as you want, but you can only prescribe Suboxone to one hundred people???” The doctor answers yes, that’s what the law says.
Also towards the end of the show, they discussed Seattle’s LEAD program. I liked to hear a law enforcement officer say, “We can’t arrest our way out of this problem.” Given that LEAD is based on harm-reduction principles, the program showed that though LEAD helps a great many people, other people don’t choose to participate in drug addiction treatment.
Thank God that law enforcement is starting to admit law enforcement can’t fix addiction.
Addiction Medicine Finally Recognized as a Medical Specialty
Earlier this month, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) announced that Addiction Medicine achieved specialty status.
It’s hard to explain quite what this means, but I’ll try. Addiction Medicine is now formally recognized as a specialty field of medicine with a distinct arena of clinical knowledge, grounded in evidence-based information. Board certified Addiction Medicine physicians should now be recognized as experts in this field.
It is also hoped that recognition of Addiction Medicine as a specialty will result in medical students and residents getting more training about drug use and abuse, and addiction prevention and treatment. We already have fellowship training programs for Addiction Medicine, and hopefully these will expand, to train more physicians in this specialty.
According to the information sent by the American Board of Addiction Medicine, addiction and risky substance use accounts for about a third of all hospital costs, and is responsible for twenty percent of all deaths in the United States. Slightly fewer than four thousand of us are certified by the American Board of Addiction Medicine, so more doctors are needed in this important field of medicine.
I am so grateful to all of the people who worked so hard to get this recognition of Addiction Medicine. I know this is something the members of the American Society of Addiction Medicine have been striving toward for over a decade. Thanks to all of you!