Archive for the ‘Prevent Addiction’ Category

Check Out CASA’s New Free Publication

If you’ve never browsed CASA’s website, you need to do so. CASA, which stands for Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, at Columbia University, has helpful information about addiction and its treatment that you can download for free. They have information about how to reduce the risk of addiction in teens (“The Importance of Family Dinners” series), information about the cost and impact of untreated addiction on society ( “Shoveling Up”), in formation about substance abuse and the U.S. prison population (“Behind Bars” series), and the availability of drugs on the internet (the “You’ve got Drugs” series). All of these contain useful and thought-provoking data.

This summer, they published a masterpiece: “Addiction Medicine: Closing the Gap between Science and Practice.” I’ve read most of this book, and admire the clarity and call to action it presents. This publication outlines all aspects of what is wrong with addiction treatment in the U.S., and how to fix it.

Every politician should read it. Every parent should read it. Physicians and treatment center personnel should read it. Anyone who is concerned about the extent of addiction and its poor treatment in the U.S. should read it.

CASA describes their key findings of the drawbacks of the U.S. system – or non-system – of addiction treatment. This nation is doing many things wrong, to the detriment of people afflicted with addiction, their families and their communities. Our mistakes are based on ignorance, misperceptions, and prejudice. All of these impede our ability to help our people with addiction. The CASA report clearly describes these factors, saying they all contributed to our present situation. We have declared a war on people who use drugs, not on drugs.

The CASA report describes how public opinion about addiction isn’t based on science. We now have science that proves addiction is a brain disease. We know that continued use of addicting substances alters the structure and function of the brain, affecting judgment and behavior about the continued use of drugs even when bad consequences occur. We know that at least half of the risk for developing addiction is determined by one’s genetic makeup. Yet surveys show that about a third of U.S. citizens still feel addiction is due to lack of willpower and self-control. Why are public attitudes so disconnected from science?

Addiction is a complicated diagnosis, existing as it does at the end of the continuum from occasional drug use to regular use to compulsive use. People often compare a drug user with a drug addict. They say that since the drug user was able to stop when he wanted that the drug addict should be able to stop when he wanted. This compares apples to oranges. If someone can comfortably stop using drugs when given a good enough reason to do so, this person isn’t an addict. They may be a drug abuser, a problem user, and at high risk for addiction, but they haven’t crossed the line into uncontrollable use.

The CASA report illuminates what addiction medicine physicians have been saying for years: addiction treatment and prevention isn’t treated by physicians and health professionals. Most addiction treatment is provided by counselors who, for the most part, aren’t required to have any medical training. Only six states require a bachelor’s degree to become an addiction counselor, and only one (Alabama, go figure) requires a master’s degree.

Even when physicians are involved in the treatment of addiction, most of us have very little, if any, training in medical school or residencies about addiction prevention or treatment. Ironically, most of our training focuses on treating the consequences of addiction.

In medical school and residency, I spent countless hours learning about the proper treatment of cirrhosis, gastritis, anemia, pancreatitis, dementia, and peripheral neuropathy from alcohol addiction. I had little if any training about how to treat alcohol addiction, and none about how to prevent it.

We know brief interventions by physicians during office visits can reduce problem drinking and are an effective way to prevent problems before they occur. Yet few physicians are trained to do this brief intervention. Even if they are trained, primary care physicians and physician extenders are being asked to do more and more at each visit with patients, and asked to do it with less and less time. Often, primary care providers aren’t paid to do brief interventions, and an opportunity for prevention is lost. Yet that same patient may consume hundreds of thousands of healthcare dollars during only one hospital admission for the consequences of with alcohol addiction.

When I practiced in primary care, I often thought about how I never got to the root of the problem. I felt like I was slapping Band-Aids on gaping wounds. I would – literally – give patients with addiction strikingly absurd advice. “Please stop injecting heroin. You got that heart valve infection from injecting heroin and you need to quit.” I could see it was ineffective, but I didn’t know any better way at the time. I thought if there was a better way to treat patients, I’d have learned about it in my training.

Wrong. Instead, I learned about this vast body of scientific literature about addiction treatment by accident, when I worked at an addiction treatment center for a few days, covering for a doctor friend of mine.

In coming blogs, I’ll outline more of the points made by this timely publication. In the meantime, read it for yourself at  http://www.casacolumbia.org

Information from the ASAM Conference: the CDC

At the recent ASAM conference, Dr. Ileana Arias, Deputy Director for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, spoke at a plenary session, explaining the public health impact of our epidemic of prescription drug abuse and addiction. She did a great job explaining how bad the problem of opioid addiction has become in the U.S. She also had some great slides. The above slide shows how by 2008, poisonings overtook motor vehicle accidents as the number one cause of death in the U.S. Overwhelmingly, the poisonings were drugs, and the vast majority of these drug overdose deaths involved opioids. Dr. Arias explained the ice berg phenomenon, where for each person who dies from opioid overdose death, an estimated 118 are estimated to meet the diagnosis for opioid abuse and dependency. She presented information showing that the amount of prescription opioids sold quadrupled between 1999 and 2010.

Dr. Arias spoke at our conference to encourage us and to let us know the CDC was committed to help solve our nation’s prescription opioid addiction problem.

She outlined some of the measures the CDC is taking to help prevent opioid addiction and overdose deaths.  She explained the new lock-in programs now being used by some insurance companies, where the patient can have only one doctor and one pharmacy to prescribe and fill medications. The CDC is advocating for all states to have prescription monitoring programs, and for those state programs to be linked, so that a doctor can access medications filled in other states.

Dr. Arias mentioned the progress being made in Florida, where pill mills are being shut down. Unfortunately, some pill mills have moved to other states like Georgia, Texas, Louisiana, Ohio, and – my favorote state to criticize – Tennessee.

She also spoke of the success of medication take-back days, where people drop off old medication for appropriate disposal so that it doesn’t fall into the wrong hands, and she described many other actions the CDC has started.

This was all great information, familiar to those of us treating opioid addiction over the past five to ten years. I’m grateful the CDC has joined the effort to quelch this problem. Their resources and experience can help a great deal. I just wish all doctors in the country could hear her message.

The addiction medicine doctors had a chance to make comments and further suggestions to the CDC through Dr. Arias, and I was pleased to see how carefully she listened.

One of the suggestions I liked the best addressed the expense of maintaining state prescriptoin monitoring programs. Apparently these can cost around a million dollars a year to administer. One doctor said why not have the pharmaceutical companies that make and sell controlled substances pay or help pay for the monitoring programs? These companies are the main entities that have benefitted from the sales and diversion of their products; why not ask them to bear at least some of the cost for detecting the problems they cause? Genius, though it would be hard to mandate the pharmaceutical companies to do this.

One doctor suggested that law enforcement personnel be educated about the types of treatment available to opioid addicts, so they can stop being barriers toward effective treatments, namely medication-assisted treatments using buprenorphine and methadone.

Another doctor suggested the CDC promote the naloxone programs that provide kits to reverse fatal opioid overdoses. Why not help fund these projects and/or help create more? The Harm Reduction Coalition estimates there are around 155 naloxone programs in the U.S. Some are government-funded and some are privately funded, but around 10,000 fatal opioid overdoses have been reversed. Like Project Lazarus in North Carolina, many of these programs started at a grass roots level because citizens got involved.

Another doctor made the extremely common sense suggestion that the best way to allow more patients into suboxone treatment would be to allow doctors to treat more than one hundred patients at a time. At present, suboxone doctors are allowed to have no more than thirty patients on buprenorphine in their first year prescribing, and no more than one hundred after the first year. This would cost next to nothing for the government to implement, and expand treament dramatically.

One of our past ASAM presidents endorsed mandatory physician education as a requirement for maintaining medical license.

One person compared the prescription opioid addiction to HIV infection in past years, and commended the CDC on its past efforts to reduce the stigma associated with having HIV. This person asked the CDC to make public service announcements to help reduce the stigma of addiction, and encourge people to get treatment.

Another doctor asked the CDC to produce public service announcements telling people to lock up their medications, to prevent medication diversion to a teen or other person for whom it was not prescribed. This doctor also said that patients need to know that not all pain conditions require prescription opioids. He recommended telling the general public the true risks of opioid addiction, which have been downplayed. In the past, pain medicine experts underestimated the incidence of addiction in patients prescribe opioids for chronic pain for more than three months.

The CDC representative, Dr. Arias, confirmed that the CDC already has plans to make PSAs about pain pills and pain pill addiction, much like their present (and very successful) anti-smoking television PSAs.

All great information, and now let’s get the word out to all physicians, and the public too.

New Controls on Opioid Prescribing

As discussed in my last blog entry, prescription monitoring programs will help diminish our present-day epidemic of prescription opioid addiction, but these PMPs are just a start. State and federal governments are passing other laws, with the intent to reduce pain pill addiction.

For example, over the summer, Ohio enacted legislation aimed at physicians who primarily see patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Doctors prescribing opioids for more than 50% of their patients are now required to take periodic continuing medical education classes about the safe prescribing of opioids. These physicians are required to take a minimum of twenty hours of training every two years. Ohio also now says that physicians who own pain practices need to register with their medical board and undergo site inspections, as well as comply with patient-tracking requirements. Six other states now mandate doctors get yearly continuing education on pain management and the safe prescribing of opioids to maintain licensure from their medical boards.

Some doctors protest these measures, but this training is intensely needed. More than ten years ago, CASA (Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University) did a study that showed physicians are poorly trained to recognize and treat addictive disorders. Of doctors who were surveyed about the training they received in their residency programs, thirty-nine percent received training on how to identify drug diversion, and sixty-one percent received training on identifying prescription drug addiction. Seventy percent of the doctors surveyed said they received instruction on how to prescribe controlled substances. (1)

These findings are appalling. Thirty percent of doctors received no training on how to prescribe controlled substances in their residency programs.  Nearly a third of the doctors leaving residency – last stop for most doctors before being loosed upon the populace to practice medicine with little to no oversight – had no training on how to prescribe these potentially dangerous drugs. Sixty-two percent leaving residency had training on pain management. This means the remaining thirty-eight percent had no training on the treatment of pain.

 These doctors weren’t in specialty care. They were in family practice, internal medicine, OB/GYN, psychiatry, and orthopedic surgery. The study included physicians of all ages (fifty-three percent were under age fifty), all races (though a majority at seventy-five percent were white, three other races were represented), and all types of locations (thirty-seven percent urban, thirty percent suburban, with the remainder small towns or rural areas). This study shows that medical training in the U.S. does not, at present, do a good job of teaching doctors about two diseases that causes much disability and suffering: pain and addiction.

 Despite having relatively little training in indentifying and treating prescription pill addiction, physicians tend to be overly confident in their abilities to detect such addictions. CASA found that eighty percent of the surveyed physicians felt they were qualified to identify both drug abuse and addiction. However, in a 1998 CASA study, Under the Rug: Substance Abuse and the Mature Woman, physicians were given a case history of a 68 year old woman, with symptoms of prescription drug addiction. Only one percent of the surveyed physicians presented substance abuse as a possible diagnosis.  In a similar study, when presented with a case history suggestive of an addictive disorder, only six percent of primary care physicians listed substance abuse as a possible diagnosis. (2)

Besides being poorly educated about treatments for patients with addiction, most doctors aren’t comfortable having frank discussions about a patient’s drug misuse or addiction. Most physicians fear they will provoke anger or shame in their patients. Physicians may feel disgust with addicted patients and find them unpleasant, demanding, or even frightening. Conversely, doctors can feel too embarrassed to ask seemingly “nice” people about addiction. In a CASA study titled, Missed Opportunity, forty-seven percent of physicians in primary care said it was difficult to discuss prescription drug addiction and abuse with their patients for whom they had prescribed such drugs.

From this data, it’s clear physicians are poorly educated about the disease of addiction, as well as the safe treatment of pain. Medical schools and residencies need to critically re-evaluate their teaching priorities to include training in pain management and addiction. Until that can be done, states need to mandate yearly training for physicians on these topics, because most practicing physicians never got adequate training on these topics.

Most doctors are not happy about these government mandates. It’s human nature to resent being told you need more training, especially if it’s at your own expense. It’s difficult to get time off work for trainings and it’s inconvenient. Yet the alternative – no increase in training for practicing physicians – isn’t acceptable. The addiction rate is too high in this country to ignore, or to avoid taking actions.

Not all of the new state mandates are good ideas.

The state of Washington passed a law in 2010 that took effect in July of this year. It says only pain management specialists can prescribe more than the equivalent of 120mg of morphine per day for a patient. Non-pain management doctors cannot prescribe more than this, by law.

I think it’s alarming when lawmakers set dose limits for any medication. I don’t know of any other medication in any other state that has a dose limit set by non-physicians.

I assume Washington’s lawmakers had good intentions. They’re concerned about the rising numbers of opioid overdose deaths in their state. They based the cut-off of 120mg of morphine on a study (Annals of Internal Medicine, Jan 19, 2010) that showed patients taking more than 100mg of morphine, or its equivalent, were nine times more likely to have a drug overdose than those prescribe 20mg or less. But these lawmakers aren’t equipped to understand the real life complications that may occur due to this law. Government officials have already admitted they don’t know how patients will be able afford to see pain specialists, or even be able to find a specialist, since there aren’t enough pain specialists in that state. The government’s website explaining the new rules (3) also admits there are no lists of physicians pain specialists. I couldn’t find the state’s definition of a “pain specialist” on this website, so there will be confusion as to what this even means. If it means only doctors who are board-certified in pain management, that will surely be a very small number. Some doctors have said they will avoid prescribing opioids at all, given the additional regulatory burdens.

Other critics of this new law say it gives false gives reassurances to patients and doctors that doses under the 120mg cutoff are safe. We know that’s not true. Many times the danger lies in other medications, like benzodiazepines, that are prescribed with opioids.

This same law goes into great detail about how pain patients are to be screened before opioids for chronic pain are started, and how patients who are prescribed opioids are to be managed. Patients must be screened for past addiction, and for depression and anxiety disorders. The law outlines how patients are to be followed by their doctors. Washington’s lawmakers also mandate random urine drug screening of patients being prescribed opioids, and written patient agreements. The law gets in to specific details about what needs to be in the patient monitoring agreement.

Some doctors feel the government has overstepped its bounds and will interfere with physicians’ clinical judgments. Patients are already complaining that they have great difficulty finding doctors who will prescribe opioids to adequately treat their pain.

I support most legislation that helps physicians identify and treat opioid addiction, but I think Washington’s law has gone too far. Balanced, rational decisions are urgently needed. If we over-react out of fear, the pendulum will swing too far to the other side. Over-regulation could have unintended consequences including having patient in acute or pain or with cancer pain unable to get an adequate prescription for opioids.

  1. 1. Missed Opportunity: A National Survey of Primary Care Physicians and Patients on Substance Abuse, Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, April 2000. Also available online at http://www.casacolumbia.org  
  2.  Under the Rug: Substance Abuse and the Mature Woman, Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1998. Available online at http://www.casacolumbia.org
  3.  http://www.doh.wa.gov/hsqa/Professions/PainManagement/

Things You Can Do to Reduce the Impact of Addiction in Your Community

Sometimes it’s frustrating to hear repeatedly on the news that opioid addiction is such a problem. It’s easy to feel helpless about the situation, and doubtful about how you can help. In this blog entry, I’m going to describe some very specific things you can do to reduce the impact of addiction on our society.

  • If you are an addict, get help immediately. Many people have so much shame about becoming addicted that they’re mortified to seek help, fearing the stigma attached to addiction and to an admitted addict, so it takes tremendous courage to admit you have this problem. If you are getting medications from your doctor, tell her the truth. Tell her you are misusing the medicine and need help. She should be able to guide you to an appropriate addiction treatment center, to get an evaluation. At a good treatment center, you should be informed of all of your treatment options. This should include information on both medication-free treatment and medication-assisted treatment.
  • If you are doctor shopping for prescriptions, stop it now. As more and more doctors use their states’ prescription monitoring database, sooner or later you will be discovered by one of your doctors. In my state of North Carolina, doctor shopping is a felony, because it’s considered using false pretenses to get a controlled substance. Instead, get treatment. If you’re selling these medications, stop it before you go to jail or kill someone.
  • Get rid of all old medication in your cabinets, especially if they are controlled substances like opioid pain pills, sedatives, sleeping pills, or stimulants. According to a recent survey, most young people got their first opioid drug from friends or family. Many times, they took what they found in their parents’ medicine cabinets, or in their friends’ parents’ medicine cabinets. Some communities have regular “drug take back” days, where people bring unused medication for disposal. If you don’t have these in your community, you can wet the pills and mix them with coffee grounds or cat litter, and then throw them in the garbage. The coffee grounds and cat litter will deter addicts looking for medication. Don’t flush pills in the toilet, because there are fears the medication can enter our water supply.
  • Don’t share your medication, with anyone, even family. In this country, sharing medication is so common people don’t realize it’s a crime. Some people feel that if it’s their medicine, and they bought it, they have the right to do with it what they want. This isn’t true. Giving controlled substances to another person is a crime, and dangerous as well. Selling a controlled substance is even worse. Speak up to friends and family, letting them know you don’t think it’s OK for Aunt Bea to give Jimmy one of her Xanax pill because his nerves are bad today. Jimmy needs to see his own doctor.
  • Give your children clear and consistent anti-drug messages. Don’t glamorize your own past drug use, including alcohol, by telling war stories. It should go without saying, though I’m going to say it: don’t use drugs with your kids, including alcohol and marijuana. Also, don’t err in the opposite direction, and exaggerate the harms of drug use, because you’ll lose credibility with your kids. Some may remember how the film “Reefer Madness” was mocked. Talk to your kids in an age-appropriate way about drugs and alcohol, even if they don’t appear to be listening.
  • If you have a family member addicted to prescription medication, call their doctor to describe what you see. The doctor probably can’t discuss your relative’s treatment, unless given permission, but your doctor can accept information. Write a letter, and be specific with what you’ve witnessed. If your loved one runs out of medication early and then buys off the street, let the doctor know.
  • If you feel your addicted loved one is seeing an unscrupulous doctor, report what you know to your state’s medical board. These professional organizations are the best equipped to review a doctor’s pattern of care, to decide if the doctor is prescribing inappropriately. Charts are often reviewed by other doctors who decide if the standard of care is being met.
  • Underage drinking is serious. For each year you can postpone your child’s first experimental drug use, including alcohol, you reduce his risk of addiction by around five percent. (1) Don’t involve your kids in your own alcohol consumption; for example, don’t send you kids to the refrigerator to get you a beer. Don’t allow adolescents to drink in your house, fooling yourself with the idea of, “At least I know where they are.” Not only is it illegal, but it’s harmful.
  • Don’t use drugs or alcohol to treat minor emotional discomfort, unless you have discussed it with your doctor. For example, don’t use pain pills to help you sleep. Don’t use the Xanax your doctor prescribed for your fear of flying to treat the sadness you feel from breaking up with a boyfriend. Try to get out of the mindset that there’s a pill for every bad feeling, and try to help your friends and family see this, too.
  • See a doctor for the treatment of serious mental illness. Some mental disorders are so severe that they require medication. There are many non-addicting medications that treat depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders. Getting the appropriate treatment has been shown to decrease your risk of developing an addiction to alcohol and other drugs.
  • Monitor your adolescent’s friends. Youngsters with friends who use drugs are more likely to begin using drugs. Of course, most youngsters who experiment with drugs and alcohol won’t develop addiction, but the younger experimentation begins, the more likely it is that addiction will develop. Older siblings can be a good or harmful influence.

1.  Richard K. Ries, David A. Fiellin, Shannon C. Miller, and Richard Saitz, Principles of Addiction Medicine, 4th ed. (Philadelphia, Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, 2009) ch.99, pp1383-1389.