I know why addicts inject buprenorphine (Subutex): they think it saves them money. Over the long run, however, I doubt that’s true, given the hidden costs of addiction.
Buprenorphine has a relatively low bioavailability, at around 30%, when taken sublingually (under the tongue). This means only 30% of the total dose reaches the blood stream. If the pH of the mouth is lowered, bioavailability is reduced even further. This is why we recommend patients on buprenorphine avoid eating or drinking anything acidic for about twenty minutes prior to taking their dose.
By definition, when a drug in injected, it has 100% bioavailability. Therefore, some people inject their prescribed buprenorphine in order to get the desired blood level with a lower dose of buprenorphine. If they are prescribed 8mg per day, perhaps they use 4mg intravenously and sell the rest of their dose, or stockpile it.
People who misuse buprenorphine in this way may be blinded by their addiction to the multiple dangers of injecting drugs.
Anytime humans inject drugs into their bodies that weren’t meant to be injected, problems will occur. All sorts of medical complications can arise, which can cause exorbitant medical bills for drug users…and tax payers.
Skin: These pills weren’t meant to be injected, so they are not sterile. Buprenorphine does come in a sterile ampule to be used intravenously in healthcare settings, but I doubt that form would be found on the street for sale. The sublingual pills and film have bacteria in them, and we all have bacteria on our skin. Inevitably, some bacteria “go along for the ride” when pill matter is injected. This can cause skin and soft tissue infection of varying severity. Patients who inject can get anything from a mild cellulitis, which is an infection of the skin and soft tissues underneath, to life-threatening sepsis, which is a blood infection from bacteria. Many patients get abscesses, which are localized pockets of pus which must be drained in order to resolve.
The worst skin infection is called necrotizing fasciitis, which is a rapidly progressive infection that kills tissue. It’s also known as “flesh eating” bacteria. Often, surgeons have to remove whole infected areas of this dead tissue in order to save the patient’s life.
Scars and track marks are probably the most common skin manifestation of intravenous drug use. These can be minimized by also using a new needle, and not re-using needles.
As an aside, please don’t try to treat your own skin infections by yourself. I’ve seen horrible complications when patients try to drain abscesses on their own. And that leftover antibiotic you have on the shelf at home may not be a good choice to treat skin infections, particularly not the newer resistant bacteria.
Cardiovascular system: The tablets aren’t pure buprenorphine. The manufacturer’s website lists corn starch as another main ingredient. I don’t know for sure what that does to veins, but I know I use it in the kitchen to thicken a concoction if it’s too liquid. I imagine it does the same thing to blood in the veins. Even if the addict uses something to filter what he is injecting, some particles can still get through to the veins. Risks can be minimized by using a micron filter.
Again, bacteria can cause problems in the cardiovascular system. Sepsis, an overwhelming blood infection, can lead to endocarditis. This is a serious and life-threatening infection of heart valves. If the infection destroys a heart valve, heart surgery with valve replacement may be necessary.
Thrombophlebitis is a condition where the veins become clotting and possibly infected, usually at the injection site but sometimes further “downstream” in the vein. If this occurs in the deep veins pieces can break off and go to the lungs, causing pulmonary emboli.
If a drug is accidently injected into an artery instead of a vein, catastrophic complications can occur, including loss of limb below the level of injection. The artery becomes damaged which causes inflammation and clotting. The patient usually feels intense pain and burning immediately after injecting. Some sources suggest this can be treated with elevation of the limb and blood thinners, so go to your local emergency room if this happens to you.
Pulmonary: Corn starch and other particles like talc can cause clots and inflammation, creating structures called granulomata. As more granulomata are created, oxygen exchange in the lungs becomes more difficult, causing low oxygen levels in the patient.
Pulmonary emboli are clots from the venous blood system that break off and travel to the pulmonary arteries. When these clots are large enough, they can kill rapidly. The patient may have sharp chest pain, feel short of breath, and have a fast heart rate with low blood pressure. Blood can’t travel through the lungs to get oxygen, and the patient dies from lack of oxygenated blood. Even small clots can cause serious problems, particularly if they are also infected with bacteria.
This list isn’t complete – many other medical problems occur with intravenous drug use. Of course the most common may be transmission of the Hepatitis C or B viruses if needle/syringes/injection works are shared, as well as HIV. There are weird things like endophthalmitis, and infection of the internal eye, and other medical problems too numerous to list.
Opioid addicts using intravenously can get addicted to the process of injection. The brain repeatedly associates the ritual of injection with a rush of pleasure, and so the whole act of injecting can be difficult to stop. I’ve had patients on methadone and buprenorphine who continue to inject saline with no drugs just to feel the rush from using a needle. This can be overcome with time and counseling, but some patients have enormous difficulty with this.
So if you are reading this and considering injecting your buprenorphine in order to save money, please don’t do it. You will likely end up paying much more in the long run, and I don’t necessarily mean in a financial sense.